Deciduous (Leaf) Trees

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is an exotic insect native to Asia that has been quickly spreading across the United States. It was found in Brown County in July of 2009 and Outagamie County in February of 2015. Recently, the Wisconsin DNR has quarantined the entire state due to EAB being found throughout Wisconsin. To prevent your ash trees from being infested we recommend treating with a systemic insecticide. The insecticide would be injected directly into the trunk near the root flare.

Oak Wilt

Oak wilt is caused by a fungus that invades the vascular system of the tree where water moves. With the presence of the fungus, balloon like bumps called tyloses form and plug up the waters path through the tree. Once this water movement is slowed the leaves wilt and fall off the tree. Oak wilt is distributed through the following counties we service: Brown, Outagamie, Shawano, and Oconto. Oaks in the red oak group like northern red, northern pin are more likely to get oak wilt than the oaks in the white oak group. One way to prevent oak wilt spread is by pruning them in the dormant season. We do offer injection treatments that offer great protection. Injections have better results if used as a preventative instead of a curative.

Dutch Elm Disease

Dutch elm disease (DED) is a fungal disease that elms like American, rock, and slippery are more prone to getting. The fungus invades the water-conducting vessels causing them to clog, this stops all movement internally, causing the trees to wilt and die. Dutch elm disease is spread through elm bark beetles or by root graft. Early detection is key to protecting your elm tree(s). Flagging which is yellowing leaves on outer branches mid to late summer is an easy symptom to spot. Trunk injection of a fungicide can be done to protect your elm from getting Dutch elm disease. Pruning out infected limbs and deadwood is also recommended during the dormant season.

Bronze Birch Borer

Bronze birch borer is a native flat headed borer that attacks trees under stress. You will start to see die back in the upper canopy as the bronze birch borer starts towards the tips and works its way down the tree. When infestation of the bronze birch borer is first noticed an injection of an insecticide is recommended. The next step would be to improve the trees overall health. This can be done through our organic root program.

Apple Scab

Apple scab is a fungal leaf disease that affects crabapple trees. Symptoms usually show late summer. Leaves have brown to black spots and usually turn yellow and fall off. Treatment is recommend if the tree is defoliated year after year in late summer. The best way to do this is with three spray applications, each one done at a designated time. You should see some improvement the first year but some leaf drop may still occur. We recommend treating every two years for best results.

Yellow Leaves (Chlorosis)

Come late summer you may find that your leaves are no longer green. This change in color to yellow can be an indication of nutrient problems. This yellowing of leaf tissue is known as chlorosis. Lack of iron is the most common nutrient problem but yellowing can also be caused by nitrogen, zinc, or manganese deficiencies. There can be other reasons why the leaves are turning yellow like high soil pH, compacted soil, damaged roots, or poor drainage to name a few. To help with yellowing leaves an injection can be done. Before injection is the chosen route we recommend looking into improving the soil inside the drip line. This is done through our R00T program.

Growth Inhibitor

Growth inhibitor (paclobutrazol) is a treatment that is used to control growth in the crown. The tree or shrub being treated grows more slowly which requires less pruning. One treatment gives you up to three years of reduced growth. Another benefit of a growth inhibitor is that when growth is reduced above ground, below ground continues to grow. With more roots to shoots, you have a healthier tree. Paclobutrazol can also reduce chlorosis, prevent drought stress and aid trees affected by construction damage.

Gypsy Moth Control

Winter egg mass spray: Spot treatment of gypsy moth egg masses with a spray oil that penetrates the protective layer over the eggs. This prevents the eggs from hatching. We do our best to cover every visible egg mass but some may still hatch. We recommend following up with an insecticide treatment. Spring trunk injection: Trunk injection of an insecticide to reduce the population of feeding caterpillars. When treated the insecticide flows through the trees vascular system to the leaves. When the gypsy moth caterpillars feed on the leaves they ingest the insecticide.

Japanese Beetle

Japanese beetles weren’t found in the United States until around 1916. In our area there seems to be pockets of infestation. Grubs feed in the soil on grass roots while the adults feed on more than 300 different plant species. One of their favorite tree species to feed on is the American basswood also known as a linden tree. Often times feeding can be so heavy that the top of the tree can turn brown as the leaves die. With an injection of an insecticide we can reduce the amount of feeding and damage to the tree.

Rhizosphaera Needle Cast

Rhizosphaera needle cast is a very common fungal disease of Colorado blue spruce. Colorado blue spruce should be planted in drier climates. This disease causes loss of the inner needles on the lower branches. Pruning for air flow can help decrease favorable conditions for this disease to flourish. Fungicide spray treatments are done to protect the new growth from spreading the disease.

Dothistroma Needle Blight

Dothistroma needle blight is a common fungal problem of pine trees, especially Austrian pines. This disease first appears as spots that may encircle the needles to form bands. The tip of the needle beyond the band eventually dies. Fungicide spray treatments are done to protect new growth from the spread of the disease. Removal of infected needles that fall to the ground reduces the spores in the area of the tree.

Canker Diseases

A canker is a wound that has become infected by a fungal or bacterial pathogen. They appear as lesions on the bark and develop by the interaction between host and pathogen creating target-like expansion year to year. The pathogen grows within the wood and the host tree tries to contain the growth. Canker and stem dieback diseases are most common on trees under stress. Wounding can occur in a hail storm, from pruning, insect activity, animal damage, or temperature extremes.

Zimmerman Pine Moth

Austrian, scotch, red, white, and mugo pines are all hosts to the Zimmerman pine moth. The larvae tunnel into the new growth, causing shoot dieback, or they burrow into whorl areas causing masses of pitch to form at the wound site. These areas become weak and prone to breaking in strong winds.

Spruce Spider Mite

Spruce spider mite can attack a number of conifers including spruce, hemlock, arborvitae, and juniper. Damage is caused by their feeding and is more common on inner branches and areas protected from direct rain. The plants turn yellow to gray in color. Treatments will protect new growth, but will not improve existing damage.

Dormant Oil

Dormant oil suffocates overwintering insects such as scales and mites. Apples, crabapples, pears, and ornamental trees and shrubs benefit the most from this treatment. As the name implies, this is done in the dormant season because it is a heavier oil and is applied before leaf out.

Scale Insects

There are many species of scale that affect a wide variety of trees and shrubs. In the juvenile stage, they are called crawlers. Crawlers are mobile and have no protective cover. However, at maturity, scales are immobile and are covered by either an armored or soft shell. Scale insects feed on plant sap, causing reduced vigor and branch dieback. Treatment times vary by specific scale species.

Example of Armored scales and their hosts:

  • Euonymous scale: Burning bush, pachysandra
  • Oystershell scale: Ash, dogwood, lilac, maple, willow
  • Pine needle scale: (See Image Above)

Examples of Soft scales and their hosts:

  • Fletcher scale: Arborvitae, yew
  • Lecanium scale: many deciduous trees and shrubs
  • Magnolia scale

Girdling Roots

Girdling roots are usually caused but not limited to the improper planting of a tree. When a tree is planted too deep the roots grow toward the surface where more pore space is available. These roots can then grow back towards and over the stem which causes the problems. As the stem gets compressed by the roots, the flow of water and nutrients through the cambium is compromised. Look for the center of your tree to have a flat top or increasing death of branches towards the center of the crown. With our air tool we can find these roots and remove them to give the tree a chance. Due to this procedure being dependent on cooler temperatures to reduce stress on the tree, timeline below may adjust yearly.

Organic Root Program

Proper soil aeration is critical to a healthy tree in the urban environment. Compaction is a big problem for tree roots. With compaction you have less pore space which infiltration of oxygen and water is greatly reduced. Creating pore space with an air tool provides an avenue for healthy root growth. With the addition of a soil enhancer and mulch layer on top, this newly aerated soil is the closet representation of leaf and branch liter on a forest floor. All of this can greatly increase the health of your tree for a lifetime.

*sample image of mulch shown above


Mulch is available for purchase at our office by appointment only. Our Mulch is aged, organic, and is free of any chemical or dye. Our mulch has been sitting for at least 9 months, this means it provides instant benefit for your plants. Mulch is a crucial aspect to healthy trees and shrubs. It helps regulate soil temperature in both winter and summer. Protects plants from lawnmower damage. Helps retain soil moisture and prevents competition from grass roots. It also significantly reduces soil compaction. We have staff onsite to assist with loading. Must purchase a minimum of 1 yard.